Regulatory framework for lobbying, conflict of interest and political finance

Review of the regulatory framework for transparency in lobbying activities, management of conflict-of-interest situations, and financing of political parties and campaigns.
Value
Lobbying activities are defined in the regulatory framework, including which actors are considered as lobbyists.
Cooling off periods for public officials and lobbyists are established in the regulatory framework.
Regulations list incompatibilities between public functions and other public or private activities.
Regulations define circumstances and relationships that can lead to conflict-of-interest situations for public officials and establish the obligation to manage them.
Regulations define institutional responsibilities as well as submission, compliance, and content verification procedures for conflict-of-interest or interest declarations.
Any member of the Government must submit an interest declaration, as a minimum upon entry and any renewal or change in public office.
Any member of the parliament must submit an interest declaration, as a minimum upon entry and any renewal or change in public office.
Any member of the highest bodies of the judiciary must submit an interest declaration, as a minimum upon entry and any renewal or change in public office.
Any public employee in a high-risk position must submit an interest declaration, as a minimum upon entry and any renewal or change in public office.
Any newly appointed or reappointed top-tier civil servant of the executive branch must submit an interest declaration.
Sanctions for breaches of conflict-of-interest provisions are defined and proportional to the severity of the offence.
Sanctions for breaches of political finance and election campaign regulations are defined and proportional to the severity of the offence.
Sanctions for breaches of standards for transparency and integrity in lobbying are defined and proportional to the severity of the offence.
Electoral candidates can be held personally liable for breaches and be sanctioned.
Regulations require the administration to inform those likely to be affected by the policy changes and other stakeholders in advance that a public consultation is to take place.
Regulations ban anonymous donations, and all contributions made to political parties and/or candidates must be registered and reported.
Regulations ban contributions from foreign states or enterprises.
Regulations ban contributions from publically owned enterprises.
Electoral campaign expenses for parties, candidates and third parties are limited to a ceiling.
Parties and/or candidates must report their finances (funding and expenses) during electoral campaigns.
Regulations ban the use of public funds and resources in favour of or against a political party.
Regulations set a threshold for personal contributions to candidates’ personal campaigns.
Political parties must make financial reports public, including all contributions exceeding a fixed ceiling.
Beneficial ownership rules make mandatory the disclosure of company data to identify owners of corporations, establish a central register, and make information accessible to the public.